So many people that I meet seek a panacea for their retirement assets. It is one of those facts of life that if anything yields a return, it also inherently contains risk. Let’s explore what risks are applicable in our everyday lives.
Market risk is most common among individuals that meet with us. People will look for a “happy median” and mitigate as much risk as possible while retaining enough risk to allow their investments to earn a targeted rate of annual return. How do you mitigate risk in the market? You have heard this word many times in this column but it is worthy to mention it again – diversification.
The distorted belief of market risk is that it is the overall risk of the market. However, we should look at the various types of risk contained in this general category of risk. For example, market risk can be further defined as currency risk, equity risk or interest rate risk depending on the type of investment you are considering. Should you wish to invest in a security that is issued from a foreign company, you may be subject to potential risks in the difference between the U.S. Dollar and the currency of the domicile country of the target investment. Again, there are measures to mitigate this risk. When we use the term “mitigate” you must understand that it does not mean the risk is eliminated, merely lessened or mollified.
Interest rate risk should be heeded when purchasing debt or bond instruments. Remember, the interest rate of a bond has a direct impact on the value of the holding. For example, bond market prices drop when interest rates rise and vice-versa. The longer the bond term to maturity will also be a consideration when looking at risk exposure.
Equity risk is the presence of risk when you invest in stocks or equity instrument shares and the value of the shares may decrease. This is the most prevalent of risks to investors. Every session the markets are open, and trading is occurring, is a day that equity risk is present.
Concentration risk may be a new term for many people. This type of risk is explained within its name – concentration. Executives of publicly-traded companies are given shares of the company stock for incentives of compensation. Presumably the executives’ efforts to create profit, increase market share, etc. will cause the stock share price to increase which, in turn, will give the executives greater earnings from the ultimate sale of the stock. Risk is inherent in this type of compensation when the executive is ready to retire and their portfolio consists of the employer’s stock for more than half of the total value of their account. Tax ramifications and other considerations should be analyzed to determine the least costly method of diversifying the portfolio to reduce concentration risk.
Liquidity risk is a significant issue when holding shares or bonds that you can’t sell for a profit when you wish to sell. You may be required to sell your positions for a loss to meet a cash flow need of your family.
One of my favorite quotes by Will Rogers, which seems very appropriate in an article on investment risks, is “I’m not so much interested in the return ON my money as I am the return OF my money.” Oklahoma’s Favorite Son was always reliable for a good turn of the word.
The types of risk listed above do not fully explain all risks an individual may encounter. However, with the acceptance of a certain level of risk, mitigating the presence of risk by utilizing diversification and other measures, you may feel more comfortable and confident about your future. One method of determining the current level of risk in your portfolio is to request a complimentary analysis or “stress test” from a Certified Financial Planner™ professional. I recommend that you consider a balance between risk and return not simply the elimination of all risk. By eliminating all risk, you may not achieve your goal of exceeding inflation with your investments. See you on the golf course!